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STARS AND STRIPES
STARS AND ATRIPES
Sunday, July 11, 2004
life

Faces of Humor
Japanese brand of fun goes English

Those who've been in Japan for a while probably have observed that Japanese people do things differently from Americans. Comedy is no exception. When it comes to making people laugh, Japan's stand-up comics often perform sitting down. And they wear kimonos.
Rakugo - comic storytelling, or as some people call it, "sit-down" comedy - is a form of Japanese humor with roots said to extend to the end of the 16th century. Professional rakugo performers are said to have emerged during the Edo period in Osaka and Edo (present-day Tokyo), when they discovered they could make a living from performing.
Rakugo is a form of monologue in which the storyteller, the rakugoka, using gestures, facial and vocal expressions, narrates a tale confined to conversations between people. The storyteller, wearing a kimono, sits on a cushion, or zabuton, on stage, then tells the entire story sitting down. Stories end with a punch line, or ochi. These unique characteristics of rakug led Kimie Oshima, an assistant professor at Tokyo's Bunkyo Gakuin University, to introduce it as a form of Japanese comedy to foreigners.
"I was asked if Japanese people had any sense of humor" Oshima said, recalling when the International Society for Humor Studies asked her to make a presentation on Japanese humor in 1996. "This shows that people think there isn't any in the first place." Different types of humor traditions exist in Japan, but Oshima chose rakugo because it's told as a conversation, making it easy to research. She also liked it because the storyteller sits on the floor, wears a kimono and acts out different characters, which makes it unique.

Katsura Kaishi performing ←Katsura Kaishi performing "monkey story" at the beginning. He looks all happy receiving with cheers at the punch line.
Rakugo's long history also was important because she needed to prove it was a form of humor original to Japan. "Rakugo has a history of 300 or 400 years, longer than the history of the United States, so at least it shows that it is unique to Japan," she said. But she also simply wanted to show that "Japanese also have humor and wit." She made her presentation with a professional rakugoka performing in Japanese with subtitles, She quickly realized that for an audience that spoke only English, it needed to be performed in English.
Storytelling, gestures and facial expressions all make up rakugo - and audience members at the presentation were moving their eyes and forth between subtitle and performer. Eventually, she said, many just read the subtitles. After she returned, she got together with the rakugoka who performed in the United States and wanted to perform rakugo in English since it was his first time making foreigners laugh. They found four rakugoka who were interested in performing overseas. They and Oshima toured in the United States in 1998. Since then, they've put on shows in countries such as Singapore, Australia, Malaysia and Norway. Although they were able to put together a show in just a year, they faced difficulties. For Oshima, translating jokes that played on words in the original story was tough.
Rakugo derives much of its humor from plays on words, she added, so she couldn't just take them out. Also, the standard in America is that a good comedian should be able to make an audience laugh five times in a minute. So Oshima devised stories with that number in mind. For the rakugoka, those unable to speak English simply memorize their lines. But audience laughter at unexpected places leaves them unsure if they should continue. However, they constantly work over their skits to fit the audience.
Rakugo stories reflect the society at the time. Through rakugo, Oshima hopes people can learn Japanese culture and develop a positive image of Japanese people. "One can learn more if they learn things with humor," Oshima says. "I think rakugo is a good material for that." Oshima dreams of spreading the word "rakugo" throughout the world such as "sushi" have been accepted and used as English words, she hopes "rakugo" will catch on worldwide. "Just as people now say, 'Let's go and get some sushi,' I want people to say, 'Let's go to rakugo tonight.'"
東京新聞、the asahi shimbun
東京新聞
2004年6月8日火曜日

英語で落語実演
文京学院大の大島講師
日大の学術講演会で

日大国際関係学部(三島市)でこのほど開かれた学術講演会で、文京学院大学の大島希巳江講師が「英語落語で国際交流−七年間の活動報告」と題して講演、実際に英語落語を演じて見せた。大島講師の話によると、十年近く前に米国で開かれた国際ユーモア学会に日本人でただ一人参加した時、「日本人のユーモアは何か」と聞かれたのがきっかけで落語と取り組むことになった。
 大島講師は落語を英語に翻訳して、若手の落語家に覚えてもらった。そしてこの七年間、毎年四人の落語家を連れて外国に講演旅行している。落語家たちは最初のころは丸暗記した英語を話すだけだったが、最近では客席の反応をみてアドリブがでるようになったという。外国公演のビデオによると、落語家は「レディーズ・アンド・ジェントルメン」と言ってオーバーなアクションで演じて会場をわかしていた。
 大島講師は着物に着替え「学生に笑ってもらえるかな」と言いながら、テーブルの上に乗せた座布団に座った。出し物は数字のトリックがテーマの「つぼ算」という落語。大島講師は難しい英単語は日本語で話し、「ここがおかしい所」と言うと学生たちは後から笑った。そのうち学生たちは慣れてきて「落ち(パンチライン)で笑った。
The Asahi Shimbun
July 9, 2004
music IN SUGHT
ON THE HORIZON

PERFORMANCES
Great Ginza Rakugo Festival

Unless you speak the local lingo, you're not going to bust a gut listening to the comic monologues of rakugo, Japan's "sit-down" answer to the stand-up comedy of the West. To let more people in on the joke, a growing number of rakugo-ka storytellers, who remain seated on cushions while performing, are delivering their side-splitting spiels in English. Though humor is notoriously difficult to translate, they've been leaving'em laughing because their gesture-filled monologues typically deal with such universal themes as human nature.
The Great Ginza Rakugo Festival 2004, to be held July 17-19, will feature a special event to better acquaint English-speaking audiences with this centuries-old art form. Slated for July 17 (3:30 p.m.) at Tokyo's Yamaha Hall, near Ginza subway station, the 1 and a half session will feature an introduction and performances in English by Ryutei Komichi, Hayashiya Ippei and Kimie Oshima, who stages English rakugo shows here and overseas.

After the show in Cebu Island ←After the show in Cebu Island, a shot with staff. The staff at The Actor's Studio in Cebu were just great!
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Copyright 2002 Kimie Oshima